References

Over 4000 scientific papers have informed the contents of this website and they cannot all be listed here but important references below are marked in the text pages. Several individuals and their research groups have contributed greatly to our understanding of CTS over the last few years and particular mention should be made of:

Prof. Luca Padua, Rome, Italy

Dr. Isam Atroshi, Hassleholm, Sweden

Dr Jeffrey N Katz, Boston USA

Dr Alan E Freeland, University of Mississippi, USA

Individual papers

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H --- K - L - M - N - O - P - R - S - T -- V - W - Y

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Abicalaf, C. A., N. de Barros, et al. (2007). "Ultrasound evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome before and after endoscopic release of the transverse carpal ligament." Clin Radiol 62: 890-894.

Ahn, D.-S. (2001). "Hand elevation: a new test for carpal tunnel syndrome." Ann Plast Surg 46(2): 120-124.

Akalin, E. El, O. Peker, O, Seoncak, O. Tamci, S. Gulbahar, S. Cakmur, R. Oncel, S (2002) “Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with nerve and tendon gliding exercises” Am J Phys Med Rehabil 81(2):108-113

Al-Qattan, M. M., R. T. Manktelow, et al. (1994). "Outcome of carpal tunnel release in diabetic patients." Journal of Hand Surgery 19B(5): 626-629.

Allampallam, K., J. Chakraborty, et al. (1996). "Explant culture, immunoflourescence and electron-microscopic study of flexor retinaculum in carpal tunnel syndrome." J Occup Environ Med 38: 264-271.

Altinok, T., O. Baysal, et al. (2004). "Ultrasonographic assessment of mild and moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome." Clin Radiol 59(10): 916-925.

Alves MPT, Araujo GCS. Low-level laser therapy after carpal tunnel release. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
2011;46(6):697–701

Ashraf, A. R., R. Jali, et al. (2009). "The diagnostic value of ultrasonography in patients with electrophysiologicaly confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome." Electromyography & Clinical Neurophysiology 49(1): 3-8.

Ashraf A, Yazdani AH, Mirshams S. Evaluation of effectiveness of local insulin injection in type 2 diabetic patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Int J Endocrinol Metab 2008;2:95-103.

Ashworth NL, Bland JDP. "Effectiveness of second corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome" Muscle and Nerve 2013 - Online in advance of print

Assmus, H. and F. Staub (2004). "[Postmastectomy lymphedema and carpal tunnel syndrome. Surgical considerations and advice for patients]." Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 36(4): 237-240.

Atroshi I, Hofer M, Larsson G-U, Ornstein E, Johnsson R, Ranstam J. Open Compared With 2-Portal Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release: A 5-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Hand Surgery 2009;34A:266-72.

Atroshi, I., C. Gummesson, et al. (2007). "Carpal tunnel syndrome and keyboard use at work." Arthritis and Rheumatism 56(11): 3620-3625.

Atroshi I. The SF-6D Health Utility Index in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. J Hand Surgery 2007;32B:198-202.

Atroshi I, Gummesson C, Johnsson R, Ornstein E, Ranstam J, Rosen I. "Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population." JAMA 1999;282(2):153-58.

Atroshi I, Lyten P-E, Ornstein E, Gummeson C. "The Six-Item CTS Symptoms Scale and Palmar Pain Scale in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome." J Hand Surgery 2011;36A:768-94.

Atroshi I, Flondell M, Hofer M, Ranstam, J. "Methylprednisolone Injections for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial." Annals of Internal Medicine, 2013;159:309-317

Aung KK, Wu WK, Tokumi A, et al. Does a Directive to an Internet Site Enhance the Doctor-Patient Interaction? A Prospective Randomized Study for Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2015;97(13):1112-8.

Banta CA. A prospective, nonrandomised study of iontophoresis, wrist splinting, and anti-inflammatory medication in the treatment of early-mild carpal tunnel syndrome. J Occup Med 1994;36:166-68.

Barcenilla, A., L. M. March, et al. (2012). "Carpal tunnel syndrome and its relationship to occupation: a meta-analysis." Rheumatology (Oxford) 51(2): 250-261.

Beaton DE, Wright JG, Katz JN. Development of the QuickDASH: comparison of three item-reduction approaches. J Bone Joint Surg 2005;87A(5):1038-46.

Beck JD, Brothers JG, Maloney PJ, Deegan JH, Tang X, C KJ. Predicting the Outcome of Revision Carpal Tunnel Release. J Hand Surgery 2012;37A:282-287

Beekman, R., J. H. Wokke, et al. (2004). "Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: follow-up and prognostic factors determining outcome." Neurology 63: 1675-1680

Bekkelund SI, Pierre-Jerome C, Torbergsen T, et al. Impact of occupational variables in carpal tunnel syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 2001;103(3):193-97.

 

Bender DA. "Vitamin B6: Beyond Adequacy." Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011;16(1):29-39.

Berger L, Li Z-M. Balloon carpal tunnel plasty: first comparative clinical study. Pittsburgh Orthopaedic Journal 2006.

Berger M, Vermeulen M, Koelman JHTM, van Schaik IN, Roos YBWEM. "The long-term follow-up of treatment with corticosteroid injections in patiets with carpal tunnel syndrome. When are multiple injections indicated?" Journal of Hand Surgery; 2013; 38E(6); 634-639 

Bharucha NE, Bharucha AE, Bharucha EP. "Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in the Parsi community of Bombay." Neurology 1991;41:1315-17.

Bindra, R. R., B. A. Evanoff, et al. (1977). "The use of routine wrist radiography in the evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome." Journal of Hand Surgery 22A: 115-119.

Bland, J. D. P. (2000). "A neurophysiological grading scale for carpal tunnel syndrome." Muscle and Nerve 23: 1280-1283.

Bland JDP, Rudolfer SM. "Clinical surveillance of carpal tunnel syndrome in two areas of the United Kingdom, 1991-2001." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:1674-79.

Bland, J. D. P. (2005). "The relationship of obesity, age, and carpal tunnel syndrome: More complex than was thought? ." Muscle and Nerve 32(4): 527-532.

Bland, J. D. P. (2007). "Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome." Muscle and Nerve 36: 167-171.

Bland, J. D. P. (2007). "Use of screening blood tests in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome." J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 78: 551.

Bland, JDP, Weller, P, Rudolfer S (2011) "Questionnaire tools for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome from the patient history" Muscle and Nerve 44: 757-762

Bland JDP, Ashworth NL. Does prior local corticosteroid injection prejudice the outcome of subsequent carpal tunnel decompression? Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) 2015:epub ahead of print.

Blankfield, R. P., C. Sulzmann, et al. (2001). "Therapeutic touch in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome." J Am Board Fam Pract 14(5): 335-342.

Blazar PE, Floyd WET, Han CH, Rozental TD, Earp BE (2015). "Prognostic Indicators for Recurrent SYmptoms After a Single Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome" J Bone Joint Surg Am 97: 1563-70

Bower, J. A., G. J. Stanisz, et al. (2006). "An MRI evaluation of carpal tunnel dimensions in healthy wrists: Implications for carpal tunnel syndrome." Clin Biomech 21(8): 816-825.

Bozentka, D. J., P. Beredjiklian, et al. (2001). "Hand Related Disorders Following Axillary Dissection for Breast Cancer." University of Pensylvania Orthopaedic Journal 14: 35-37.

Branco K, Naeser MA. Carpal tunnel syndrome: clinical outcome after low-level laser acupuncture, microamps transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and other alternative therapies--an open protocol study. J Altern Complement Med 1999;5(1):5-26.

Brooks JJ, Schiller JR, Allen SD, Akelman E. Biomechanical and anatomical consequences of carpal tunnel release. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2003;18:685-93.

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Capasso, M., C. Manzoli, et al. (2009). "Management of extreme carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence from a long-term follow-up study." Muscle and Nerve.

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Carter R, Hall T, Aspy C, Mold J. The effectiveness of magnet therapy for treatment of wrist pain attributed to carpal tunnel syndrome. J Fam Pract 2002;51(1):38-40.

Castelli, W. A., F. G. Evans, et al. (1980). "Intraneural connective tissue proliferation of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel." Arch Phys Med Rehabil 61: 418-422.

Chammas, M., et al., Dupuytren's disease, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Hand Surgery, 1995. 20A: p. 109-114.

Chang, M. H., H. T. Chiang, et al. (1998). "Oral drug of choice in carpal tunnel syndrome." Neurology 51(2): 390-393.

Chung KC, Pillsbury MS, Walters MR, et al. Reliability and validity testing of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. J Hand Surgery 1998;23A(4):575-87.

Choi, S.-J. and D.-S. Ahn (1998). "Correlation of clinical history and electrodiagnostic abnormalities with outcome after surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome." Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 102(7): 2374-2380

Cobb, T. K., J. R. Bond, et al. (1997). "Assessement of the ratio of carpal contents to carpal tunnel volume in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a preliminary report." Journal of Hand Surgery 22A: 635-639

Colbert AP, Markov MS, Carlson N, Gregory WL, Carlson H, Elmer PJ. Static magnetic field therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome:a feasibility study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1098-104.

Confino-Cohen R, Lishner M, Savin H, Lang R, Ravid M. Response of carpal tunnel syndrome to hormone replacement therapy. Brit Med J 1991;303:1514.

Cook AC, Szabo RM, Birkholz SW, King EF. Early mobilization following carpal tunnel release. A prospective randomized study. J Hand Surgery 1995;20B(2):228-230.

Cowan, J., H. Makanji, et al. (2012). "Determinants of return to work after carpal tunnel release." J Hand Surg Am 37(1): 18-27

Dammers, J. W. H. H., M. M. Veering, et al. (1999). "Injection with methylprednisolone proximal to the carpal tunnel: randomised double blind trial." Brit Med J 319: 884-886.

Dammers HJ, Veering MM. Two injections with steroids close to the carpal tunnel are a greater help in CTS than one injection; 76.5% and 50% success. (abstract). Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System 2001;6:137.

Dammers JWHH, Roos Y, Veering MM, Vermeulen M. Injection with methylprednisolone in patients with the carpal tunnel syndrome A randomised double blind trial testing three different doses. J Neurol 2006;253:574-77.

Davis, P T. Hulbert, J R. Kassak, K M. Meyer, J J. (1998) “Comparative efficacy of conservative medical and chiropractic treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized clinical trial” J Manipulative Physiol Ther 21(5): 317-326

De Angelis, M. V., F. Peierfelice, et al. (2009). "Efficacy of a soft hand brace and a wrist splint for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled study." Acta Neurol Scand 119: 68-74.

de Krom MC, Knipschild PG, Kester AD, Thijs CT, Boekkooi PF, Spaans F. "Carpal tunnel syndrome, prevalence in the general population." J Clin Epidemiol 1992;45(4):373-76.

Dekel S, Papaionnou T, Rushworth G, Coates R. Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome caused by carpal stenosis. Brit Med J 1980;280:1297-99.

Dellon AL, Mackinnon SE. Chronic nerve compression model for the double crush hypothesis. Ann Plast Surg 1991;26:259-64.

Demirci, S., S. Kutluhan, et al. (2002). "Comparison of open carpal tunnel release and local steroid treatment outcomes in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome." Rheumatol Int 22(1): 33-37.

Descatha, A., L. Huard, et al. (2012). "Meta-Analysis on the Performance of Sonography for the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome." Semin Arthritis Rheum.

DeStefano F, Nordstrom DL, Vierkant RA. Long term symptom outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome and its treatment. J Hand Surgery 1997;22A(March):200-10.

Duncan, I., P. Sullivan, et al. (1999). "Sonography in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome." Am J Roentgenol 173(3): 681-684.

Durkan, J. A. (1991). "A new diagnostic test for carpal tunnel syndrome." J Bone Joint Surg 73A: 535-538.

Durkan, J. A. (1994). "The carpal compression test: an instrumental device for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome." Orthop Rev 23: 522-525.

Ebata T, Tokunaga S, Abe Y. Postoperative Follow-Up of Extreme Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: How Long Does It Take to Recover Thumb Opposition? The Journal of Hand Surgery 2014;39(9):e30.

Ebata T, Tokunaga S, Takahashi Y, et al. Postoperative Follow-up of Severe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Does Thumb Opposition Recover? The Journal of Hand Surgery 2012;37(8):2-3.

Ebenbichler GR, Resch KL, Nicolakis P, Wiesinger GF, Uhl F, Ghanem A-H, et al. Ultrasound treatment for treating the carpal tunnel syndrome: randomised "sham" controlled trial. Brit Med J 1998;316(7133):731-35.

Eberlin KR, Vargas CR, Chuang DJ, et al. Patient education for carpal tunnel syndrome: analysis of readability. Hand (N Y) 2015;10(3):374-80.

Edgell SE, McCabe SJ, Breidenbach WC, LaJoie AS, Abell TD. Predicting the outcome of carpal tunnel release. J Hand Surgery 2003;28A:255-61.

Eftekharsadat B, Shakouri SK, Shimia M, Rahbar M, Ghojazadeh M, Rashidi MR, et al. Effect of E. Laciniata (L) ointment on mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Phytotherapy Research 2010;Epub ahead of print.

El Miedany YM, Aty SA, Ashour S. Ultrasonography versus nerve conduction study in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: substantive or complementary tests? Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004;43(7):887-95.

Ellis, J M. Kishi, T, Azuma, J. Folkers, K (1976) “Vitamin B6 deficiency in patients with a clinical syndrome including the carpal tunnel defect: biochemical and clinical response to therapy with pyridoxine” Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 13:743-757

Ettema, A. M., P. C. Amadio, et al. (2004). "A histological and biochemical study of the subsynovial connective tissue in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome." J Bone Joint Surg 86A: 1458-1466.

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Finsen V, Andersen K, Russwurm H. No advantage from splinting the wrist after open carpal tunnel release. A randomized study of 82 wrists. Acta Orthop Scand 1999;70(3):288-292

Flondell, M. Hofer, M. Bjork, J. Atroshi, I (2010) Local steroid innjection for moderately severe idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: Protocol of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT 00806871), BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 11; 76

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Gordon T, Amirjani N, Edwards DC, et al. Brief post-surgical electrical stimulation accelerates axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation without affecting the functional measures in carpal tunnel syndrome patients. Exp Neurol 2010;223(1):192-202.

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Ismatullah, "Local steroid injection or carpal tunnel release for carpal tunnel syndrome - Which is more effective?" J Postgrad Med Inst 27(2): 194-199

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Jeffrey SLA, Belcher HJCR. Use of Arnica to relieve pain after carpal-tunnel release surgery. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2002;8(2):66–8.

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Jerosch-Herold C, Houghton J, Miller L, Shepstone L. "Does sensory relearning improve tactile function after carpal tunnel decompression? A pragmatic, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial" J.Hand Surg Eur Vole 2016, epub ahead of print

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Revision date - 21st August 2016

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